# Topics similar to or like Bose–Einstein statistics

In quantum statistics, Bose–Einstein (B–E) statistics describe one of two possible ways in which a collection of non-interacting, indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy states at thermodynamic equilibrium. Wikipedia

• In quantum statistics, a branch of physics, Fermi–Dirac statistics describe a distribution of particles over energy states in systems consisting of many identical particles that obey the Pauli exclusion principle. Named after Enrico Fermi and Paul Dirac, each of whom discovered the method independently . Wikipedia

• Particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics. Bosons make up one of two classes of elementary particles, the other being fermions. Wikipedia

• State of matter (also called the fifth state of matter) which is typically formed when a gas of bosons at low densities is cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero (-273.15 °C, -459.67 °F). Under such conditions, a large fraction of bosons occupy the lowest quantum state, at which point microscopic quantum mechanical phenomena, particularly wavefunction interference, become apparent macroscopically. Wikipedia

• Applicable when the temperature is high enough or the particle density is low enough to render quantum effects negligible. The expected number of particles with energy for Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics is Wikipedia

• Physical phenomenon that occurs when a pair or group of particles is generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in a way such that the quantum state of each particle of the pair or group cannot be described independently of the state of the others, including when the particles are separated by a large distance. At the heart of the disparity between classical and quantum physics: entanglement is a primary feature of quantum mechanics lacking in classical mechanics. Wikipedia

• In quantum mechanics, the spin–statistics theorem relates the intrinsic spin of a particle (angular momentum not due to the orbital motion) to the particle statistics it obeys. In units of the reduced Planck constant ħ, all particles that move in 3 dimensions have either integer spin or half-integer spin. Wikipedia

## Sentences forBose–Einstein statistics

• This was independently developed soon after by the British physicist Paul Dirac, who also showed how it was related to the Bose–Einstein statistics.
• In contrast, bosons obey the rules of Bose–Einstein statistics and have no such restriction, so they may "bunch together" in identical states.
• In Bose–Einstein statistics distribution, \mu is actually still nonzero for BECs; however, \mu is less than the ground state energy.
• In addition to the work he did by himself he also collaborated with other scientists on additional projects including the Bose–Einstein statistics, the Einstein refrigerator and others.
• Most physicists speak of Fermi–Dirac statistics for half-integer-spin particles and Bose–Einstein statistics for integer-spin particles.
• This formula, apart from the first vacuum energy term, is a special case of the general formula for particles obeying Bose–Einstein statistics.

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