Topics similar to or like Covariance and contravariance (computer science)

Many programming language type systems support subtyping. Wikipedia

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  • Subtyping

    Form of type polymorphism in which a subtype is a datatype that is related to another datatype (the supertype) by some notion of substitutability, meaning that program elements, typically subroutines or functions, written to operate on elements of the supertype can also operate on elements of the subtype. Subtype of T, the subtyping relation is often written S <: T, to mean that any term of type S can be safely used in a context where a term of type T is expected. Wikipedia

  • Way to make a language more expressive, while still maintaining full static type-safety. Using parametric polymorphism, a function or a data type can be written generically so that it can handle values identically without depending on their type. Wikipedia

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    General-purpose, procedural computer programming language supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope, and recursion, with a static type system. By design, C provides constructs that map efficiently to typical machine instructions. Wikipedia


    Sentences forCovariance and contravariance (computer science)

    • In particular, if is a subtype of , then a value of type can be used in a context where one of type is expected (covariant), even if the reverse is not true.Type system-Wikipedia
    • C# has explicit support for covariance and contravariance in generic types, unlike C++ which has some degree of support for contravariance simply through the semantics of return types on virtual methods.C Sharp (programming language)-Wikipedia
    • In some languages subtypes may also possess covariant or contravariant return types and argument types respectively.Type system-Wikipedia
    • The type coercion for function types may be given by f'(s) = coerceS 2 → T2 (f(coerceT 1 → S1 (t))), reflecting the contravariance of function arguments and covariance of return values.Subtyping-Wikipedia
    • It yielded the first formalization of the problem of covariance and contravariance of object-oriented languages and a solution to the problem of binary methods.Multiple dispatch-Wikipedia
    • However, since arrays are contravariant, the casting would not be type safe, and the compiler would be unable to find certain possible errors that would otherwise be caught when using generic types.Generic programming-Wikipedia

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