Former countries similar to or like Cumania
Turkic confederation in the western part of the Eurasian Steppe, between the 10th and 13th centuries. Wikipedia
The Cumans (or Kumans), also known as Polovtsians or Polovtsy (plural only, from the Russian exonym Половцы), were a Turkic nomadic people comprising the western branch of the Cuman–Kipchak confederation. Important role in the development of the state, and Anatolia before the invasion. Wikipedia
The Kipchaks, also known as Qipchaq or Polovtsians, were a Turkic nomadic people and confederation that existed in the Middle Ages, inhabiting parts of the Eurasian Steppe. First mentioned in the 8th century as part of the Second Turkic Khaganate, they most likely inhabited the Altai region from where they expanded over the following centuries, first as part of the Kimek Khanate and later as part of a confederation with the Cumans. Wikipedia
The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Oghuz branch of the Turkic language family. The Pechenegs were mentioned as Bjnak, Bjanak or Bajanak in medieval Arabic and Persian texts, as Be-ča-nag in Classical Tibetan documents, and as Pačanak-i in works written in Georgian. Wikipedia
- A direct attack on Cumania came only in 1238–1239, and encountered serious resistance by various Cuman khans.
- In the Kipchak steppe, a complex ethnic assimilation and consolidation process took place between the 11th and 13th centuries.
- The High Middle Ages saw the height and decline of the Slavic state of Kievan Rus' and emergence of Cumania.
- In 1217, Genghis Khan sent Subutai to hunt down the hated Merkits and their allies, the Cuman-Kipchak confederation, in modern-day central Kazakhstan.
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