Topics similar to or like Promoter (genetics)

[[File:Lac Operon.svg|thumb|250px|1: RNA Polymerase, 2: Repressor, 3: Promoter, 4: Operator, 5: Lactose, 6: lacZ, 7: lacY, 8: lacA. Wikipedia

  • Lac_Operon.svg: 1: RNA Polymerase, 2: lac repressor, 3: Promoter, 4: Operator, 5: Lactose, 6: lacZ, 7: lacY, 8: lacA. Essentially turned off. Wikipedia

  • Transcription (biology)

    First of several steps of DNA based gene expression in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase. Both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids, which use base pairs of nucleotides as a complementary language. Wikipedia

  • RNA polymerase

    Compare RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Enzyme that synthesizes RNA from a DNA template. Wikipedia

  • RNA editing

    Molecular process through which some cells can make discrete changes to specific nucleotide sequences within an RNA molecule after it has been generated by RNA polymerase. One of the most evolutionarily conserved properties of RNAs. Wikipedia

  • RNA polymerase II holoenzyme

    Form of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II that is recruited to the promoters of protein-coding genes in living cells. It consists of RNA polymerase II, a subset of general transcription factors, and regulatory proteins known as. Wikipedia

  • Eukaryotic transcription

    Elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of transportable complementary RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Wikipedia

  • Operon

    Operon is a functioning unit of DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter. MRNA strand and either translated together in the cytoplasm, or undergo splicing to create monocistronic mRNAs that are translated separately, i.e. several strands of mRNA that each encode a single gene product. Wikipedia

  • RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    Enzyme that catalyzes the replication of RNA from an RNA template. Specifically, it catalyzes synthesis of the RNA strand complementary to a given RNA template. Wikipedia

  • In eukaryote cells, RNA polymerase III (also called Pol III) transcribes DNA to synthesize ribosomal 5S rRNA, tRNA and other small RNAs. Required in all cell types and most environmental conditions. Wikipedia

  • Transcription factor

    Protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence. To regulate—turn on and off—genes in order to make sure that they are expressed in the right cell at the right time and in the right amount throughout the life of the cell and the organism. Wikipedia

  • Silencer (genetics)

    DNA sequence capable of binding transcription regulation factors, called repressors. DNA contains genes and provides the template to produce messenger RNA (mRNA). Wikipedia

  • Transcriptional regulation

    Means by which a cell regulates the conversion of DNA to RNA , thereby orchestrating gene activity. Transcribed. Wikipedia

  • RNA interference

    Biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing targeted mRNA molecules. Known by other names, including co-suppression, post-transcriptional gene silencing , and quelling. Wikipedia

  • RNA polymerase II

    Multiprotein complex that transcribes DNA into precursors of messenger RNA (mRNA) and most small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and microRNA. One of the three RNAP enzymes found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Wikipedia

  • Synthesized by RNA polymerase III), a type of RNA that accounts for over 50% of the total RNA synthesized in a cell. 590 kDa enzyme that consists of 14 protein subunits , and its crystal structure in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was solved at 2.8Å resolution in 2013. Wikipedia

  • Translation (biology)

    Process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or endoplasmic reticulum synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus. Called gene expression. Wikipedia

  • Enhancer RNA

    Enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) represent a class of relatively short non-coding RNA molecules (50-2000 nucleotides) transcribed from the DNA sequence of enhancer regions. They were first detected in 2010 through the use of genome-wide techniques such as RNA-seq and ChIP-seq. Wikipedia

  • Lac repressor

    DNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of genes coding for proteins involved in the metabolism of lactose in bacteria. Not available to the cell, ensuring that the bacterium only invests energy in the production of machinery necessary for uptake and utilization of lactose when lactose is present. Wikipedia

  • Regulation of gene expression

    Regulation of gene expression, or gene regulation, includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA). Sophisticated programs of gene expression are widely observed in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways, respond to environmental stimuli, or adapt to new food sources. Wikipedia

  • Five prime untranslated region

    Region of an mRNA that is directly upstream from the initiation codon. Important for the regulation of translation of a transcript by differing mechanisms in viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Wikipedia

  • Nuclear protein involved in the RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription of DNA. One of several general transcription factors (GTFs) that are required for all transcription events that use RNA polymerase II. Wikipedia

  • RNA splicing

    Form of RNA processing in which a newly made precursor messenger RNA transcript is transformed into a mature messenger RNA (mRNA). During splicing, introns (non-coding regions) are removed and exons (coding regions) are joined together. Wikipedia

  • Abortive initiation

    Early process of genetic transcription in which RNA polymerase binds to a DNA promoter and enters into cycles of synthesis of short mRNA transcripts which are released before the transcription complex leaves the promoter. This process occurs in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Wikipedia

  • Lac operon

    Operon required for the transport and metabolism of lactose in E.coli and many other enteric bacteria. Preferred carbon source for most bacteria, the lac operon allows for the effective digestion of lactose when glucose is not available through the activity of beta-galactosidase. Wikipedia

  • Post-transcriptional regulation

    Control of gene expression at the RNA level. Synthesizing the nucleotide sequence. Wikipedia

  • Capping enzyme

    Enzyme that catalyzes the attachment of the 5' cap to messenger RNA molecules that are in the process of being synthesized in the cell nucleus during the first stages of gene expression. The addition of the cap occurs co-transcriptionally, after the growing RNA molecule contains as little as 25 nucleotides. Wikipedia

  • RNA-Seq

    Sequencing technique which uses next-generation sequencing (NGS) to reveal the presence and quantity of RNA in a biological sample at a given moment, analyzing the continuously changing cellular transcriptome. Specifically, RNA-Seq facilitates the ability to look at alternative gene spliced transcripts, post-transcriptional modifications, gene fusion, mutations/SNPs and changes in gene expression over time, or differences in gene expression in different groups or treatments. Wikipedia

  • Polyadenylation

    Addition of a poly tail to an RNA transcript, typically a messenger RNA (mRNA). Stretch of RNA that has only adenine bases. Wikipedia

  • Archaeal transcription

    Process in which a segment of archeaeal DNA is copied into a newly synthesized strand of RNA using the sole Pol II-like RNA polymerase . Strand of RNA that is complementary to a single strand of DNA. Wikipedia

  • PBAD promoter

    Promoter found in bacteria and especially as part of plasmids used in laboratory studies. Part of the arabinose operon whose name derives from the genes it regulates transcription of: araB, araA, and araD. Wikipedia

Sentences

Sentences forPromoter (genetics)

  • Monsanto had to seek deregulation to conduct field trials of RRA, because the RRA contains a promoter sequence derived from the plant pathogen figwort mosaic virus.Alfalfa-Wikipedia
  • The two tat proteins (p16 and p14) are transcriptional transactivators for the LTR promoter acting by binding the TAR RNA element.HIV-Wikipedia
  • DNA methylation causing silencing in cancer typically occurs at multiple CpG sites in the CpG islands that are present in the promoters of protein coding genes.DNA methylation-Wikipedia
  • Eukaryotic promoter regions are much more complex and difficult to identify than prokaryotic promoters.Gene-Wikipedia
  • NF-κB increases the levels of the microRNA miR-34a (which inhibits nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NAD synthesis) by binding to its promoter region.NF-κB-Wikipedia
  • First, genes require a promoter sequence.Gene-Wikipedia

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